The Beta Agonist System
Effects on Muscle Growth and Fat Loss:
The Role of Ephedrine, Caffeine, and Aspirin
The ß-agonist (beta agonist) system influences muscle growth and fat loss. Beta
receptors are located on the surfaces of many cells, including muscle and fat cells. These
beta receptors bind beta agonists (e.g., adrenaline and noradrenaline). The receptors then
initiate a series of chemical reactions that lead to the production of C-AMP. C-AMP
effects protein phosphorylation which produces and then activates enzymes which induce
lipolysis (fat breakdown), along with enzymes that increase muscle growth.
Ephedrine, caffeine, and aspirin are examples of substances that affect the beta
agonist system: Ephedrine increases beta agonist production and also acts as a beta
agonist itself, caffeine inhibits C-AMP breakdown, and aspirin inhibits negative feedback
which can reduce beta agonist production.
A commonly used ephedrine-caffeine-aspirin "stack" is one 20 - 25 mg
ephedrine tablet, 200 mg of caffeine, and half a regular aspirin tablet, or one children's
aspirin. (A cup of coffee contains 75-100 mg of caffeine so 2 cups of coffee can replace
the caffeine tablet if desired).
Warning! Consult with a physician prior to using any ephedrine-caffeine-aspirin
mixture. Do not use if you have any type of heart problem or high blood pressure, or
if pregnant or lactating.
Lactic Acid: Effects on Muscle Function
"Muscle Memory": A Theoretical Concept Based on
Muscle Structure and Function